The story, due out later this year, will be based on her twins and is co-authored by her husband Nick Cannon, the host of America's Got Talent.
It will be called Roc and Roe's Twelve Days of Christmas and feature Moroccan (Roc) and Monroe (Roe).
"We are so excited to work with the Scholastic team on our Roc and Roe picture book and we can't wait until this holiday season," said the couple.
The US publishers say the book is aimed at children aged three and over and will be illustrated by New York Times bestselling artist AG Ford.
"It's been such a fun and collaborative process and we are thrilled to be working with Nick Cannon and Mariah Carey on this exciting project.
"Roc and Roe's Twelve Days of Christmas is the perfect book to read with your little ones - an adorable spin on a classic tale, sprinkled with humour and heart," said Ken Geist, vice president and editorial director at Scholastic Press Picture Books.
She gave birth to fraternal twins, girl Monroe and boy Moroccan, in April 2011.
Mariah is already well known for another artistic contribution to the festive season, with her hit single All I Want for Christmas is You.
Last month the track sold its millionth copy in the UK, 19 years after it was first released.
The singer has already revealed she is working on a new solo album, due for release in the coming months.